Glossary

Atherosclerosis: The formation of atheroma, plaque composed of cholesterol lipids, fibrotic tissue, inflammatory cells, and calcification in the later stages. This is in counter distinction to arteriosclerosis, which is aging of the arteries, thickening of the inner lining and a loss of elasticity “hardening of the arteries”.
Blood pressure: A measurement of the pressure within the arteries, reported in mm of Hg. The top reading (systolic pressure) refers to the peak pressure the heart develops when contracting. The bottom reading (diastole) is the resting pressure within the artery. Normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm of Hg. Either elevation of the upper or lower readings or both (>140/90) increases the risk of heart disease.
Blood sugar: A blood carbohydrate known as glucose necessary for energy metabolism and which requires insulin.
Cholesterol: A sterol lipid found in all animals. It is the basis of many hormones and necessary for brain and nervous tissue. High concentrations in the blood can promote clogging of arteries (atherosclerosis).
CRP: An abbreviation for C reactive protein, an inflammatory marker associated with heart disease.
Gluten: Originating from the Latin gluten “glue” it is the protein found in wheat (a combination of prolamin and glutelin) hooked together with starch in the wheat grain. Individuals can be intolerant to these proteins producing serve intestinal problems known as celiac disease, “non-tropical sprue”.
HDL: High Density Lipoprotein (the good cholesterol) helps to protect and remove plaque from arteries.
Heart attack: A cardiac event resulting in death of heart muscle (myocardium) when an artery becomes plugged (stenosis). If not corrected, tissue dies (infarcts) and the muscle supplied by that artery can no longer contract.
Heart disease: A general term usually referring to coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis. See atherosclerosis.
Hypertension: Elevated blood pressure. See blood pressure.
Induction cooking: An energy efficient means of cooking with magnetic waves. A pan must be “induction ready” (a magnet must be able stick to the bottom) meaning that it has ferro kinetic properties. Only the pan heats on the induction surface.
LDL: Low Density Lipoprotein (the bad cholesterol) found in atherosclerotic plaques resulting in clogged arteries.
Margarine: A butter substitute having less saturated fat than butter. There are many varieties of margarines with differing amounts of fats and “butter-like” flavors.
Mycoproteins: Protein obtained from fungi. The most common product is called Quorn™. It is an excellent vegetarian protein source.
Plant sterols/stanols: Compounds ubiquitous to plants having a structure similar to cholesterol except for the side chain attachment. Stanols have this side change saturated. Both substances block the uptake of cholesterol in the gut and can lower LDL (bad cholesterol) by as much as 10-14% when consuming 2-3 grams per day in supplements.
Polyols: A generic class of compounds known as sugar alcohols in food science. These substances have a sweet like property used as sugar substitutes and are calorie free. Common names include sorbitol or natural occurring erythritol. 
Saturated fat: Fatty acids that are saturated. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and have been associated with increased risk of heart disease.
Seitan: Pronounced “say-tahn”, it is wheat gluten or commonly referred to as “wheat meat”.
Stroke: When the brain losses blood supply from a clogged artery, the brain tissue dies (infarcts). An artery can rupture and produce a hemorrhagic stroke.
Sugar substitutes: A variety of calorie-free compounds that can occur naturally such as the  sugar alcohol from the stevia plant or chemically altered sugar, amino acids or chemical compounds. Most of these products produce an undesirable “after taste.”
Tea seed oil: Not to be confused with tea tree oil, tea seed oil is commonly produced from the seeds of the camellia plant. It is the number one oil in southern China and has a smoke point of 485°F, unusual for oil that is low in saturated fat. Because of its heat resistant properties, it is excellent oil for stir frying or high-heat sautéing.
Tempeh: vegetarian meat replacement made from fermented soybeans mixed with usually rice or millet. It is commonly used in Indonesian cooking.
Tofu: Also known as “soybean curd” it is produced by curdling soymilk. It is analogous to cottage cheese, but non-dairy.
Trans fats: A fat that is hydrogenated to make it stable and solid at room temperature. Trans fats are associated with heart disease raising LDL (bad cholesterol) and lowering HDL (good cholesterol).
Triglycerides: A lipid compound causing fatty acids to be soluble in the blood stream. Three fatty acid chains are attached to a glycerol molecule, hence the term “tri” meaning three. High triglycerides occur after a high fatty meal rich in carbohydrates. Elevation often occurs in diabetics and those who are sugar intolerant.
TVP: An abbreviation for texturized vegetable protein made from defatted soybean flour (oil removed). TVP or TSP (texturized soy protein) has a meat-like texture appearance and is used in a number of soy products including vegetarian hot dogs and soy burgers.
Whey protein: Whey is the liquid portion of milk when it is curdled. The curd is the product of cheese and the whey is a byproduct, rich in essential proteins and fat free.